Both, the continuous tightening of the exhaust emission standards and the global efforts for a significant lowering of CO2 output in public traffic display significant developments for future diesel engines. These engines will utilize not only the mandatory Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and particulate trap (DPF), but also a DeNOx aftertreatment system as well — at least for heavier vehicles. The DOC as well as actually available sophisticated DeNOx aftertreatment technologies, i.e. LNT and SCR, depends on proper exhaust gas temperatures to achieve a high conversion rates. This aspect becomes continuously critical due to intensified measures for CO2 reduction, which will conclude in a drop of exhaust gas temperatures. Furthermore, this trend has to be taken into account regarding future electrification and hybridization scenarios. In order to ensure the high NOx conversion rates in the EAS intelligent temperature management strategies will be required, not only based on conventional calibration measures, but also a further upgrade of the engine hardware.
Advanced split-cooling and similar thermal management technologies offer the merit to lower CO2 emissions on one hand and increase exhaust gas temperature at cold start and warm-up simultaneously on the other hand. Besides this, also variable valve train functionalities deliver a substantial potential of active thermal management. In the context of this paper various concepts for exhaust gas temperature management are investigated and compared. The final judgment will focus on the effectiveness concerning real exhaust temperature increase vs. corresponding fuel economy penalty. Further factors, like operational robustness, consequences on operational strategies and related software algorithms as well as cost are assessed. The utilized reference engine in this advanced program is represented by a refined I-4 research engine to achieve best combustion efficiency at minimal engine-out emissions. The detailed studies were performed with an injection strategy, featuring one pilot injection and one main injection event, and an active, advanced closed-loop combustion control. The engine used in this study allows fulfillment of Euro 6 and Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions standards, while offering high power densities above 80 kW/ltr.
As a résumé, it can be stated, that with all accomplished variations a significant increase in temperature downstream low pressure turbine can be achieved. The PI and PoI quantities define dominant parameters for emission formation under cold and warm conditions. By using an exhaust cam-phaser CO-, HC- and NOx emissions can be significantly lowered, separating VVT functions from the other investigated strategies.