Toluene fuel-tracer laser-induced fluorescence is employed to quantitatively measure the equivalence ratio distributions in the cylinder of a light-duty diesel engine operating in a low-temperature, high-EGR, and early-injection operating mode. Measurements are made in a non-combusting environment at crank angles capturing the mixture preparation period: from the start-of-injection through the onset of high-temperature heat release. Three horizontal planes are considered: within the clearance volume, the bowl rim region, and the lower bowl. Swirl ratio and injection pressure are varied independently, and the impact of these parameters on the mixture distribution is correlated to the heat release rate and the engine-out emissions.
As the swirl ratio or injection pressure is increased, the amount of over-lean mixture in the upper central region of the combustion chamber, in the bowl rim region and above, also increases. Unexpectedly, increased injection pressure results in a greater quantity of over-rich mixture within the squish volume.