This article presents a causal, forward looking approach for the hybrid electric vehicle where the typical performance engine map representation has been modified. The need for a more physical model of the power stroke process has been fulfilled with “the filling and emptying” method. The thermodynamic states in the intake and exhaust systems are calculated, while the in-cylinder process is still based on the engine fuel consumption map as a calibrated data. Comparisons with the conventional model are established, most important is the response of the engine torque under the load demand. This notion of an “available” torque is taken into account by the energy management strategy. Changes on the distribution of energy flow in order to meet the required torque at the wheel are observed and influence of this modelisation on the fuel consumption over various driving cycles is evaluated.

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