Much of the technology in advanced diesel engines, such as high injection pressures, is aimed at overcoming the short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuels to promote premixed combustion in order to reduce NOx and smoke. Previous work in a 2 litre single cylinder diesel engine with a compression ratio of 14 has demonstrated that gasoline fuel, because of its high ignition delay, is very beneficial for premixed compression ignition compared to a conventional diesel fuel. We have now done similar studies in a smaller — 0.537 litre — single cylinder diesel engine with a compression ratio of 15.8. The engine was run on three fuels of very different auto-ignition quality — a typical European diesel fuel with a cetane number (CN) of 56, a typical European gasoline of 95 RON and 85 MON with an estimated CN of 16 and another gasoline of 84 RON and 78 MON (estimated CN of 21). The previous results with gasoline were obtained only at 1200 rpm — here we compare the fuels also at 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm. At 1200 rpm, at low loads (∼4 bar IMEP) when smoke is negligible, NOx levels below 0.4 g/kWh can be easily attained with gasoline without using EGR while this is not possible with the 56 CN European diesel. At these loads, the maximum pressure rise rate is also significantly lower for gasoline. At 2000 rpm, with 2 bar absolute intake pressure, NOx can be reduced below 0.4 g/kWh with negligible smoke (FSN <0.1) with gasoline between 10 and 12 bar IMEP using sufficient EGR while this is not possible with the diesel fuel. At 3000 rpm, with the intake pressure at 2.4 bar absolute, NOx of 0.4 g/KWh with negligible smoke was attainable with gasoline at 13 bar IMEP. Hydrocarbon and CO emissions are higher for gasoline and will require after-treatment. High peak heat release rates can be alleviated using multiple injections. Large amounts of gasoline, unlike diesel, can be injected very early in the cycle without causing heat release during the compression stroke and this enables the heat release profile to be shaped.
- Internal Combustion Engine Division
Low NOx and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasoline-Like Fuels
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Kalghatgi, G, Hildingsson, L, & Johansson, B. "Low NOx and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasoline-Like Fuels." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference. ASME 2009 Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. May 3–6, 2009. pp. 259-271. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICES2009-76034
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