This paper compares 20% bio-diesel (B20-choice white grease) fuel with baseline ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel on the performance of combustion and emissions of a light-duty 4-cylinder 2.8-liter common-rail DI diesel engine. The results show that operating the engine in the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) regime produces lower PM and NOx with a slight penalty in fuel consumption, THC, and CO emissions. B20, in general, produces less soot. A slight increase in NOx emissions is shown with B20 compared to ULSD, with an exception at the high speed point where B20 has lower NOx values. In addition, the performance and emission characteristics are investigated as a function of the ECU injection strategy. The addition of pilot injections is found to effectively reduce combustion noise and extends the injection retard window to reach LTC combustion regimes with acceptable noise level for LD diesel engines.

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