A rather complete mathematical model for a Common Rail injection-system dynamics numerical simulation was developed to support experimentation, layout and control design, as well as performance optimization. The thermo-fluid dynamics of the hydraulic system components, including rail, connecting pipes and injectors was modeled in conjunction with the solenoid-circuit electromagnetics and the mechanics of mobile elements. Onedimensional flow equations in conservation form were used to simulate wave propagation phenomena throughout the high-pressure connecting pipes, including the feeding pipe of the injector nozzle. In order to simulate the temperature variations due to the fuel compressibility, the energy equation was used in addition to mass conservation and momentum balance equations. Besides, the possible cavitation phenomena effects on the mass flow rate through the injector bleed orifice and the nozzle holes were taken into account. A simple model of the electromagnetic driving circuit was used to predict the temporal distribution of the force acting on the pilot-valve anchor. It was based on the experimental time-histories of the current through the solenoid and of the associated voltage that is provided by the electronic control unit (ECU) to the solenoid valve. The numerical code was validated through the comparison of the prediction results with experimental data, that is, pressure, injected flow rate and needle lift time-histories, taken on a high performance test bench Moehwald-Bosch MEP2000-CA4000. The novel injection-system mathematical model was applied to the analysis of transient flows through the hydraulic circuit of a commercial multijet second-generation Common Rail system, paying specific attention to the wave propagation phenomena, to their dependence on solenoid energizing time and rail pressure, as well as to their effects on system performance. An insight was also given into the model capability of accurately predicting the wave dynamics effects on the rate and mass of fuel injected when the dwell time between two consecutive injections is varied.

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