This paper reviews the options available to the engine manufacturer to comply with US off-highway Tier 3 emissions limits and beyond. The most cost-effective solutions are considered and discussed. Possible technical scenarios for the longer-term development of off-highway engines are reviewed.   NOTE: This paper was presented at the ASME 2003 Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference but was printed in the ASME 2003 Internal Combustion Engine and Rail Transportation Divisions Fall Technical Conference proceedings, pages 419–426. It should appear under the Application and Operation heading.

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