Both physical and mathematical models were built to describe the main processes in large-bore gas engines. Based on the detail modeling and analysis of cylinder airflow, fuel injection, mixing, combustion and NOx generation, it was possible to pinpoint the problem of abnormal NOx production, even for lean mixtures, that occurs in these engines. In addition, analysis of the experimental data of jet mixing using high-speed photographic evidence, as well as engine performance data, has helped in the understanding of the mixing process. This has resulted in the development of a new way of the mixing of fuel and air utilizing multiple-nozzle supersonic injection. The fuel injection system is designed to optimize the mixing of the methane fuel with the air in the cylinder of a large bore natural gas engine. The design goals of low-pressure (<130 psi), all-electronic valve actuation, and optimal mixing were all achieved with a unique valve/nozzle arrangement. Later, a laser induced fluorescence method was used to take high-speed photographs of the development of the fuel jet exiting the newly developed supersonic electronic fuel injector (SSEFI). This result, together with the results of numerous experimental testing of SSEFI on different engines (GMVH-6, GMW-10, V-250, UTC-165) are presented as evidence of the success of the SSEFI application for the improvement of engine performance, engine control and NOx reduction.

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