Formaldehyde is a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) that is typically emitted from natural gas-fired internal combustion engines as a product of incomplete combustion. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing national emission standards to regulate HAP emissions, including formaldehyde, from stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This work investigates the effect that variations of engine operating parameters have on formaldehyde emissions from a large bore natural gas engine. The subject engine is a Cooper-Bessemer GMV-4TF two-stroke cycle engine with a 14″ (36 cm) bore and a 14″ (36 cm) stroke. Engine parameter variations investigated include load, boost, ignition timing, inlet air humidity ratio, air manifold temperature, jacket water temperature, prechamber fuel supply pressure, exhaust backpressure, and speed. The data analysis and interpretation is performed with reference to possible formaldehyde formation mechanisms and in-cylinder phenomena.

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