For two production DISI fuel injectors, flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were utilized to illustrate the effect of fuel rail pressure and in-cylinder density (using in-cylinder pressure) on instantaneous fuel spray structure. Studies were performed within a non-motored research cylinder for two fuel rail pressures (3 MPa and 5 MPa) and two in-cylinder pressures (2 atm and 6 atm). Instantaneous flow visualization demonstrated the effects of changes in fuel rail pressure and in-cylinder density on transient spray structure. Increased fuel rail pressure resulted in increased narrowing of the spray cross-section and increased spray penetration distance. Increased in-cylinder density produced sprays with increased narrowing of the spray cross-section and shorter penetration distances. Spray velocities were shown to increase with increased fuel rail pressure and decrease with increased in-cylinder density.