Although cementation is a widely recognized solidification/stabilization process for immobilisation of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (ILRW), the low resistance to hyperalkaline pore waters compromises the effectiveness of the process when Portland Cement (PC) is employed. Moreover the manufacture of PC is responsible for significant CO2 emissions. In this context, low pH cements are environmentally more suitable and have emerged as a potential alternative for obtaining secure waste forms. This paper summarises the achievements on development of low-pH cements and the challenges of using these new materials for the ILRW immobilisation. The performance of waste forms is also discussed in terms of radionuclides release. Reactive magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphate cements are emphasised as they feature important advantages such as consumption of available constituents for controlling acid-base reactions, reduced permeability and higher density. Additionally, in order to identify new opportunities for study, the long-term modelling approach is also briefly discussed.

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