Many types of complex radioactive wastes exist, that due to their chemical and radiological characteristics, are problematic to treat using traditional methods. Studsvik has developed the THOR® process that has the capability to successfully treat a wide variety of radioactive wastes including those with high organic content, high nitrate and nitrite content, high solids content, and heavy metal bearing. The process produces a dry stable waste form with no liquid effluents and environmentally compliant off-gas emissions, while reducing the overall waste volume. The more than 10 years of successful operations at Studsvik’s facility in Erwin, TN USA provides the foundation for the deployment of the THOR® steam reforming process for the treatment of many complex wastes. The THOR® process has been shown to effectively convert numerous types of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) liquid radioactive wastes into solid products while providing a final waste form with leach resistance comparable to vitrified glass waste forms. In addition to testing and on-going project work in the U.S., multiple test programs including lab-scale and engineering-scale demonstrations have been successfully completed for several international organizations. This international work has included testing and development work with solid and liquid organic wastes, as well as high nitrate content liquid waste and graphite. In order to better meet the needs of the international market, Studsvik offers a modular form of its THOR® process that is transportable to multiple locations, enabling customers to treat a wide variety of waste streams at multiple sites without the need to design and construct multiple treatment facilities. This paper will provide an up to date overview of the THOR® technology, its current capabilities, and a summary of current THOR® projects.

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