Utilities worldwide are using dry-cask storage systems to handle the ever-increasing number of discharged fuel assemblies from nuclear power plants. In the United States and possibly elsewhere, this trend will continue until an acceptable disposal path is established. The recent Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, specifically the events with the storage pools, may accelerate the drive to relocate more of the used fuel assemblies from pools into dry casks. Many of the newer cask systems incorporate dual-purpose (storage and transport) or multiple-purpose (storage, transport, and disposal) canister technologies. With the prospect looming for very long term storage — possibly over multiple decades — and deferred transport, condition- and performance-based aging management of cask structures and components is now a necessity that requires immediate attention. From the standpoint of consequences, one of the greatest concerns is the rupture of a substantial number of fuel rods that would affect fuel retrievability. Used fuel cladding may become susceptible to rupture due to radial-hydride-induced embrittlement caused by water-side corrosion during the reactor operation and subsequent drying/transfer process, through early stage of storage in a dry cask, especially for high burnup fuels. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an automated data capture and remote-sensing technology ideally suited for monitoring sensitive assets on a long-term, continuous basis. One such system, called ARG-US, has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Packaging Certification Program for tracking and monitoring drums containing sensitive nuclear and radioactive materials. The ARG-US RFID system is versatile and can be readily adapted for dry-cask monitoring applications. The current built-in sensor suite consists of seal, temperature, humidity, shock, and radiation sensors. With the universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter interface in the tag, other sensors can be easily added as needed. The system can promptly generate alarms when any of the sensor thresholds are violated. For performance and compliance records, the ARGUS RFID tags incorporate nonvolatile memories for storing sensory data and history events. Over the very long term, to affirmatively monitor the condition of the cask interior (particularly the integrity of cover gas and fuel-rod cladding), development of enabling technologies for such monitoring would be required. These new technologies may include radiation-hardened sensors, in-canister energy harvesting, and wireless means of transmitting the sensor data out of the canister/cask.
- Nuclear Engineering Division and Environmental Engineering Division
Advanced Surveillance Technologies for Used Fuel Long-Term Storage and Transportation
Tsai, H, Liu, YY, Nutt, M, & Shuler, J. "Advanced Surveillance Technologies for Used Fuel Long-Term Storage and Transportation." Proceedings of the ASME 2011 14th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management. ASME 2011 14th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, Parts A and B. Reims, France. September 25–29, 2011. pp. 699-706. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEM2011-59032
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