This paper describes the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority’s experience in regulatory cooperation projects in Russia and elsewhere, with special focus on legacy issues. These legacies include many different kinds of objects and activities, including: obsolete large waste sources, such as those used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators; remediation of former military sites used for storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste; and wastes from uranium mining and ore processing. The objectives of these bi-lateral cooperation programmes are to promote effective and efficient regulatory supervision, taking into account international recommendations and good practice in other countries. Individual projects organised within the programme address specific challenges which require practical local interpretation of ICRP recommendations, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Basic Safety Standards and other IAEA requirements and guidance documents. In some cases, new regulatory documentation has been required, as well as new regulatory procedures. In the long term, the program is intended to lead to an enhanced and enduring safety culture. Positive experience in Russia encouraged the Norwegian government to extend the regulatory collaboration programme to countries in central Asia, using experience gained with Russian regulatory authorities as well as support from Russian Technical Support Organisations. The programmes are effectively evolving into a regional regulatory support group. Noting this experience, the paper includes suggestions for how international cooperation could be effective in addressing common radiation safety objectives while addressing local differences in technical, geographical, economic and cultural matters in each country. The continuing results from the cooperation will be used to provide input to the International Forum for Regulatory Supervision of Legacy Sites (RSLS) which was recently set up by the IAEA. The RSLS objectives mirror those of the bilateral activities described above and an outline is provided of the preliminary RSLS Work Plan.

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