RWMC and JGC have been running an all-round R&D program for the period of 2000–2010 to develop the concept of Vertical Emplacement for disposal of vitrified waste. The conceptual design of its basic equipment was worked out in 2000, followed by forming the large-scale bentonite block in 2001–2004. Study has also been conducted on a mechanism to convey and position the large-scale block using a vacuum suction device. Subsequent to these developments, various technologies necessary for designing the Vertical Emplacement equipment have been reviewed, which would enhance engineering feasibility and reliability. Full-scale demonstration program under a joint research program with JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) started in 2008 with the twin objectives i) supporting of public relations and ii) technical verification. The large-scale bentonite block and part of the full-scale Vertical Emplacement equipment are now on view at the Full-scale demonstration facility in Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan.

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