This study aimed to develop a methodology for assessing the evolution of the long-term groundwater system, using fracture-filling calcite. Fracture-filling calcite mineralization in deep (to ca. 1000 m) granitic rocks in Mizunami area, Japan, was studied. Four generations (I to IV) of calcite precipitation can be differentiated based on their paragenetic relationships, morphological and isotopic characteristics. Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios suggest that the Calcite I is of hydrothermal origin. On the other hand, Calcite II, IV and III were precipitated from freshwater and marine water, respectively. The Mizunami Group strata (Tertiary), which overly the basement Toki granite (Cretaceous), were initially deposited in a lacustrine environment but later became marine. Lacustrine conditions were re-established during the deposition of the upper Seto Group (Quaternary). It is suggested that both of deposition of the marine upper part of the Mizunami Group and the precipitation of Calcite III were possibly related to the same transgression event. This was followed by the precipitation of Calcite IV during subsequent fresh water flushing of the earlier marine groundwater. In summary, integrated morphological, mineralogical, microchemical and isotopic analysis of multilayered calcite fracture mineralization provides valuable information to evaluate the long-term evolution of groundwater system.

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