In France about 23,000 tons of irradiated graphite waste were generated mainly from 9 nuclear gas-cooled reactors (UNGG type). All these reactors are now shut down. In France, a final disposal route has been decided for i-graphite waste management by the French Parliament in 2006. The planning act of June 28, 2006 has provisioned that a research and investigation programme shall be established with a view to developing disposal options for graphite waste. The low specific activity of these wastes means shallow disposal facilities located in a geological layer with a low permeability. The main radionuclides that need specific attention for the long term safety are Chlorine 36 and Carbon 14. This establishes the main requirements for the graphite disposal. According to these requirements, underground disposal in a clay layer, at shallow depth, offers good performance in terms of the delay and the reduction of the radionuclide release; it also offers guarantees for the cover’s hydrodynamic and transport properties. The progress of the programme makes it now necessary for a site to be found. Based on a bibliographical study, a wide-spread call for applications took place during the second semester of 2008.
- Nuclear Engineering Division and Environmental Engineering Division
I-Graphite Waste Management in France
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Ozanam, O, & Ouzounian, G. "I-Graphite Waste Management in France." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management. ASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, Volume 1. Liverpool, UK. October 11–15, 2009. pp. 443-450. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEM2009-16301
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