The Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) was developed as a multi-agency framework for supporting radioactive site closure in the United States. MARSSIM provides a coherent, technically defensible process for establishing that exposed surfaces (soil or structure) satisfy site cleanup requirements. Site cleanup requirements are assumed to be dose or risk-derived. Unfortunately, many sites have complications that challenge a direct application of MARSSIM. Example complications include decision documents requirements that are not MARSSIM-friendly, the potential for subsurface contamination, and incomplete characterization information. These types of complications are typically the rule, rather than the exception, for sites undergoing radiologically-driven remediation and closure. This paper discusses approaches used to circumvent MARSSIM-related closure issues, while still providing a technically defensible closure protocol that is consistent with the spirit of MARSSIM and acceptable to the regulatory and broader stakeholder community.

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