Uranium mineralization is associated with the gold deposits in South Africa that have been mined for more than a century. Investigations of the radiological impacts on the environment reveal that the various radioactive wastes — mostly of low activity — associated with gold and by-product uranium production do not warrant the application of anything more than basic control measures. Non-radiological pollution of the water environment is a growing problem, however, aggravated by the closure and flooding of mines. Control measures to address this problem should, as a spin-off, limit the release of radionuclides, thus helping to control future radiological pollution.

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