One from the problems connected to financial maintenance of the civil-law responsibility behind a harm and damage caused person and an environment, caused to the person, and radiation accident, has become definition of emergencies, with allowance for of possible consequences.
By us was the made attempt partially to decide this problem on an example of an evaluation of the loss, which can be caused to health and enclosing natural medium owing to radiation accident with sources of an ionizing radiation during a realization of activity with them. The degree of risk connected to radiation accident was determined by a radiation source, that is sources of an ionizing radiation (SIR).
Necessity of legal settlement of the relations in an orb of use of a nuclear energy stipulated by potential danger, with which connected activity in this area. After a proclamation of independence of Ukraine for seven years the nuclear legislation of Ukraine because of Law of Ukraine On use of a nuclear energy and radiation safety (1995) was created. The decree of the supreme Body of Ukraine On introduction in an operation of the Law of Ukraine About use of a nuclear energy and radiation safety provided acceptance of other acts in this area, namely: about a radiation guard of the population; about a civil liability for nuclear harms; about export and import of nuclear materials, nuclear installations special non-nuclear materials and services; about safe transportation of radioactive substances; about promptly of activity in an orb of use of a nuclear energy; About a physical guard of a nuclear material, nuclear installations and radioactive scraps; about production and use of uranium ores.
July 12, 1996 the association of Ukraine to the Viennese Convention on a civil liability for nuclear harms - following pitch in directions of settlement of the relations, further development of co-operation between the states and creation of a reliable international mode of the nuclear responsibility was held. It provided development of the legal and financial mechanism of the responsibility rather promptly of activity on a principle it of the interdiction, for want of use of a nuclear material, without submission in competent organs of the warranties of financial maintenance of reimbursement of damage from radiation (nuclear) accident.
The law of Ukraine On use of a nuclear energy and radiation safety makes the responsibility of the licensee - legal or natural person, which has the sanction to a realization of activity in an orb of use of a nuclear energy given when due thereunder to have financial possibilities of compensation for damages from accidents by an own means or at the expense of a means of the insurance companies.
All SIR, the circulation with which provides availability of the licenses: the closed sources of ionizing radiation’s (CSIR), open sources of ionizing radiation’s (OSIR) and system generating an ionizing radiation. In structure CSIR I In entered: irradiating installations, flaw detectors, radioisotope gears, radioisotope thermoelectric generators.
The fulfillment of work was conducted in two stages:
I stage - creation of the list of sources of ionizing radiation;
II stages - definition of possible radiation accidents with SIR.
At the first stage of work, it was necessary to make the list of sources of ionizing radiation’s, with which the emergencies were considered.
In report was represented categories SIR according to area of their application in the economic and scientific purposes in Ukraine.
On an indication of possible influence on staff, population and environment, SIR were divided into three groups: 1 group SIR - during accident happens an external exposure of staff; 2 groups SIR - during accident happen a combined exposure of staff (external and internal); 3 groups SIR - during accident happen radiation contamination of an environment to potential danger of an internal exposure of staff and separate persons from the population.
At the same time, for want of creation of the list SIR, was taken into account:
• Potential danger SIR, connected with their kind, type and technology of the circulation with them;
• Probability of origin of radiation accidents depends on a kind of activity with SIR.
The review of the analyzed radiation situations has shown that them the violation of radiation safety has become causal.
There are emergencies connected to detection not taken into account not discounted) SIR (more often on dustbin) less often. Probably, it is stipulated by absence of means on a burial place SIR, term of which use has terminated. To check such violation after its realization it is very complicated, but to provide, it is possible and it is necessary. On warning of such violations the creation of a state system of the account (record keeping) and monitoring of sources of an ionizing radiation in Ukraine - State Register SIR is directed, which introduction in operation is planned not later, 2002.
The following, behind frequency of cases, violation - accidents connected to loss of monitoring above SIR during their operation depressurization. The reason of these violations again consists in absence of necessary financing for the contents in proper condition; installations (gears) completed SIR, in the correspondence with requests of radiation safety. Such situation can be under monitoring, can be stipulated and in time is eliminated.
Less widespread, the SIR in a diverse kind. Such rough violation is connected to violation of the rules of the circulation with SIR during their storage (in storehouses or during transportation). It testifies to bad organization of activity with SIR by administration of establishment, where the accident was held.
Among the least met violations - reasons of radiation accidents: loss SIR during transportation, breakaway of a shell in a chisel slit during geophysical work and going depressurization SIR.
Summing up outcomes of work, the analytical evaluation of possible influence of radiation accidents with SIR on staff, population and environment for definition of sizes of radiation consequences was conducted.
The analysis conducted a research has shown, that all radiation accidents, which was registered in the boundaries of Ukraine and Russia, become a corollary of violation of the rules of radiation safety.
It allows to make the following conclusion: taking into account on danger, with which the connected activity with SIR, is necessary to save necessary means concerning guarantee of fulfillment of the rules of radiation safety according to requests acting in the field of a nuclear energy.