Parcel-based simulations are the most common method to simulate fuel sprays, especially for reacting conditions, due to their lower computational cost compared to more highly resolved simulations. It is important, however, to understand how spray boundary conditions used to initialize the parcels that represent the atomizing fluid affect downstream conditions and overall simulation performance. Traditionally, when parcel simulations are used, the injector tip geometry is either significantly simplified or removed altogether due to resolution limits. Recent advances in computational power and numerical methods, however, have made it possible to resolve flow through these features. Previous work has shown some potential effects of even simple injector tip geometries, and this study investigates the effect of very detailed nozzle geometries on parcel-based simulations that have typically ignored these details. Four different parameters were investigated: whether a simulation includes a detailed injector tip geometry, or a flat surface; whether parcels are initialized at the counterbore exit, which is more common, or at the nozzle exit; the use of an experimentally-derived rate of injection or one-way coupling with a separate internal nozzle VOF simulation; the use of nominal or measured injector geometry. Simulations were compared using both global penetration as well as local data near the injector. Spray penetration and other global measures showed limited sensitivity to boundary conditions/initialization procedure, but local data such as the local liquid volume fraction showed greater variation between the conditions, which may have an impact on mixing and combustion predictions in engine applications.

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