Engine development is centered on developing a solution for best performance while meeting emissions and operational requirements. This will lead to a tradeoff between engine efficiency and emissions across a wide range of load and ambient operating points. Proper airflow to the engine through turbocharger matching is critical to ensure efficient operation and to meet emissions. This study addresses the challenges of turbocharger matching for vehicle advanced emissions control using a North American freight locomotive application as an example. The airflow trends in moving across the various operating points will be shown along with the impact on both the turbocharger and engine performance. First, the airflow trends across the locomotive load set points will be discussed along with the performance and emissions tradeoffs to meet required airflows. Results on the impact on turbocharger performance such as speed will be shown along with the engine efficiency and emissions implications. Next, the ambient operating requirements for a locomotive will be reviewed and the impact on turbocharger matching. Locomotives operate in a wide range of ambient conditions, including altitudes up to 3,050 meters and across ambient air temperatures ranging from −40 °C to well over 38 °C (including higher temperature operation). This thermal swing provides stress on the turbocharger to efficiently deliver the necessary airflow across all conditions. Trends in turbocharger performance will be reviewed and discussed across this range of ambient conditions. In addition, challenges unique to locomotive applications, such as unventilated tunnel operation and vibrational loading, will be reviewed. Finally, potential for advanced technologies such as variable geometry turbines and their applicability to locomotive operation will be discussed.