High reactivity gas-to-liquid kerosene (GTL) was investigated with port fuel injection (PFI) of low reactivity n-butanol to conduct reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). In the preliminary stage, the GTL was investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber, and the results indicated a narrower negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region than ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2). The engine research was conducted at 1500 RPM and various loads with early n-butanol PFI and dual DI pulses of GTL at 60 crank angle degrees (CAD) before top dead center (TDC) and at a timing close to TDC. Boost and PFI fractions (60% by mass n-butanol) were kept constant in order to analyze the fuel reactivity effect on combustion. Conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode with a single injection and the same combustion phasing (CA50) was used as an emissions baseline for RCCI. RCCI increased ignition delay and combustion duration decreased compared to CDC. Results showed that in order to maintain CA50 for RCCI within 1 CAD, GTL mass required for the first DI pulse to be 15% lower than that of ULSD#2 at higher loads. Peak heat release rate decreased for GTL by 25% given the high volatility and low viscosity of GTL. In general, using GTL, NOx and soot levels were reduced across load points by up to 15% to 30%, respectively, compared to ULSD RCCI, while maintaining RCCI combustion efficiency at 93–97%. Meanwhile, reductions of 85% in soot and 90% in NOx were determined when using RCCI compared to CDC. The more favorable heat release placement of GTL led to increased thermal efficiency by 3% at higher load compared to ULSD#2. The higher volatility and increased reactivity for GTL achieved lower UHC and CO than ULSD#2 at lower load. The study concluded that GTL offered advantages when used with n-butanol for this RCCI fueling configuration.

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