A design process was defined and implemented for the rapid development of purpose-built, heavy-fueled engines using modern CAE tools. The first exercise of the process was the clean sheet design of the 1.25 L, three-cylinder, turbocharged AMD45 diesel engine. The goal of the AMD45 development program was to create an engine with the power density of an automotive engine and the durability of an industrial/military diesel engine. The AMD45 engine was designed to withstand 8000 hours of operation at 4500 RPM and 45 kW output, while weighing less than 100 kg. Using a small design team, the total development time to a working prototype was less than 15 months.
Following the design phase, the AMD45 was fabricated and assembled for first prototype testing. The minimum-material-added design approach resulted in a lightweight engine with a dry weight 89 kg for the basic engine with fuel system. At 4500 RPM and an intake manifold pressure of 2.2 bar abs., the AMD45 produced 62 kW with a peak brake fuel-conversion efficiency greater than 34%. Predictions of brake power and efficiency from the design phase matched to within 5% of experimental values. When the engine is detuned to 56 kW maximum power, the use of multi-pulse injection and boost pressure control allowed the AMD45 to achieve steady state emissions (as measured over the ISO 8178 C1 test cycle) of CO and NOx+NMHC that met the EPA Tier 4 Non-road standard without exhaust after-treatment, with the exception of idle testing. PM emissions were also measured, and a sulfur-tolerant diesel particulate filter has been designed for PM after-treatment.