The automotive industry is subjected to increasing pressure in order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce the CO2 emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines. The power cylinder system (piston, piston ring, and liner) contributes significantly to the friction losses, engine oil consumption and gas leakage called blow-by. The role of cylinder bore shape in engine performance has been the subject of several studies in recent years. High bore distortion must be avoided because it can lead to ring conformability issues, which leads to inadequate sealing resulting in increased blow-by and oil consumption. It also leads to asperity contact between the piston skirt and cylinder bore increasing friction causing abnormally high surface wear. Although bore distortion cannot be eliminated, engine manufacturers strive to contain it within acceptable limits. Therefore, numerical analysis of the power cylinder with physically based mathematical models becomes very essential to the engine and component manufacturer in order to reduce engine development lead time and minimize the number of engine tests.
The integrated ring-pack modeling methodology developed by the authors  is used to investigate the piston ring-pack performance. Although the modeling approach can be used for extensive parameter analysis of piston, piston rings and lubrication oil consumption, the influence of the bore distortion on the ring conformability and its impact on blow-by, friction and wear is highlighted in this study. Piston tilting, piston ring twist and surface roughness of the piston ring and liner have been taken into consideration.