In this work, engine-out particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from an off-highway diesel engine measured using a low-cost photometer, scanning mobility particle sizer, elemental versus organic carbon analysis, and a photo-acoustic analyzer are compared. Tested engine operating modes spanned the range of those known to result in high semi-volatile particle concentration and those that emit primarily solid particles. Photometer measurements were taken following a primary dilution stage and a sample conditioner to control relative humidity prior to the instrument. Results of the study show that the photometer could qualitatively track total particle mass trends over the tested engine conditions though it was not accurate in measuring total carbon mass concentration. Further, the required photometric calibration factor (PCF) required to accurately measure total PM mass changes with the organic carbon (OC) fraction of the particles. Variables that influence PCF include particle effective density, which changes both as a function of particle diameter and OC fraction. Differences in refractive index between semi-volatile and solid particles are also significant and contribute to high error associated with measurement of total PM using the photometer. This work illustrates that it may be too difficult to accurately measure total engine PM mass with a photometer without knowing additional information about the sampled particles. However, removing semi-volatile organic materials prior to the instrument may allow the accurate estimation of elemental carbon mass concentration alone.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.