Dual fuel combustion has garnered attention in recent years because of its potential for reducing emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) while sustaining diesel-like fuel conversion efficiencies. However, most dual fuel combustion strategies suffer from higher engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, leading to poor combustion efficiencies, especially at low loads. The present work examined computationally the effect of in-cylinder swirl on diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion with a focus on devising strategies for improving part-load combustion efficiencies. For this purpose, diesel-methane dual fuel combustion was studied on a heavy-duty single cylinder research engine (SCRE) platform using CONVERGE computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. A typical low load condition (IMEP = 5.1 bar) was selected at an engine speed of 1500 rpm and a relatively high methane percentage energy substitution (PES) of 80 percent (because experiments show poorer combustion efficiencies at high methane PES) at a nominal diesel injection timing of 2 degrees BTDC (358 CAD). The closed cycle simulation was first validated with experimental results (cylinder pressure and heat release histories as well as engine-out exhaust emissions) for neat diesel and diesel-methane dual fuel combustion, respectively. Subsequently, the influence of increasing swirl ratio from 0 to 1.5 on diesel-methane dual fuel combustion was characterized. Analysis of the computational results showed that peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate increased with increasing swirl ratio while the combustion duration (as determined by CA10-80) decreases from 25 CAD at a swirl ratio of 0.05 to nearly 15 CAD at a swirl ratio of 1.5. Indicated-specific hydrocarbon (ISHC) and indicated-specific carbon monoxide (ISCO) emissions decreased by about 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, when swirl ratio was increased from 0.05 to 1.2; however, these reductions were accompanied by a 26 percent increase in indicated-specific NOx (ISNOx) emissions under these conditions. Therefore, the present study indicates that swirl optimization is a potentially viable strategy for reducing engine-out HC and CO emissions and for improving low-load combustion efficiencies in dual fuel engines, assuming additional NOx mitigation strategies are also employed simultaneously.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.