This paper experimentally investigates the effect of water injection in the intake manifold on a naturally aspirated, single cylinder, Gasoline Direct Injection engine to determine the combustion and emissions performance with combustion knock mitigation. The endeavor of the current study is to use water injection to attain the optimum combustion phasing without knocking. Further elevated intake air temperature tests were conducted to observe the effect of water injection with respect to combustion and emissions. Experiments were carried out at medium load condition (800 kPa NIMEP, 1500 RPM) at intake air temperatures between 30–90° C in 20° C increments. Two fuels, an 87 AKI and a 93 AKI were used in this study. Baseline tests were undertaken with the high-octane fuel (93 AKI) to achieve optimal combustion phasing corresponding to Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) without water injection. Water injection was utilized for the low octane fuel to achieve combustion phasing of 8–10° ATDC and within the controlled knock limit. Combustion phasing was achieved by controlling the ignition timing, water injection quantity and timing to the knock threshold. The results showed that water injection and the resultant charge cooling mitigates combustion knock and an optimum combustion phasing based on indicated fuel conversion efficiency is achieved with a water to fuel ratio of 0.6. Water injection reduces the NOx emissions while achieving better indicated thermal efficiency compared to the baseline tests. A detailed comparison is presented on the combustion phasing, indicated thermal efficiency, burn durations, HC, NOx and PN emissions in this paper.

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