Experimental work on reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) in a small-bore, multi-cylinder engine operating on premixed iso-octane and direct-injected n-heptane has shown an unexpected combustion phasing advance at early injection timings, which has not been observed in large-bore engines operating under RCCI at similar conditions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to investigate whether spray-wall interactions could be responsible for this result. Comparison of the spray penetration, fuel film mass, and in-cylinder visualization of the spray from the CFD results to the experimentally measured combustion phasing and emissions provided compelling evidence of strong fuel impingement at injection timings earlier than −90 crank angle degrees (°CA) after top dead center (aTDC), and transition from partial to full impingement between −65 and −90°CA aTDC. Based on this evidence, explanations for the combustion phasing advance at early injection timings are proposed along with potential verification experiments.

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