Gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines provide both higher engine power and better fuel efficiency than port-injection gasoline engines. However, they emit more particulate matter (PM) than the latter engines. Fuel stuck on walls of pistons and combustion chambers forms a high-density region of fuel in the air/fuel mixture, which becomes a source of PM. To decrease the amount of PM, fuel injectors with short length of spray-penetration are required. A fuel-spray simulation was previously developed; that is, the air/fuel-mixture simulation was integrated with the liquid-column-breakup simulation. The developed fuel-spray simulation was used to optimize the nozzle shapes of fuel injectors for gasoline direct-injection engines.

In the present study, the factors that influence spray-penetration length were identified by the numerical simulation. The simulation results were validated by comparing the simulated spray-penetration length with the measured ones and revealing good agreement between them. Angle α was defined as that formed between the direction of flow entering the nozzle inlet and the direction of flow leaving the nozzle outlet; in other words, a indicates a change of flow direction. It was found that α and spray-penetration length was closely related. Velocity that are accelerated with a were studied, and it was found that the velocity within a plane perpendicular to the center axis of the nozzle increases with increasing α.

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