Interpretation of combustion and emissions outcomes in diesel engines is often enhanced by accurate knowledge of the transient fuel delivery rate and flow characteristics of the injector nozzle. Important physical characteristics of these flows, including velocity profile and flow separation or cavitation effects, are difficult to measure directly, but can be characterized from a flow-averaged perspective through the measurement of nozzle flow coefficients, namely the discharge, velocity, and area contraction coefficients. Both the transient fuel mass flow rate and the flow-averaged nozzle coefficients can be found by measuring the mass and momentum flux of the fuel stream leaving the nozzle during injection through the application of an impingement technique, where fuel is sprayed onto the face of a transducer calibrated for force measurement in close proximity to the nozzle. While several published experiments have employed the spray impingement method to quantify rate-of-injection, the experimental setup and equipment selections vary widely and may contribute to disagreements in measured rate-of-injection. This paper identifies and provides estimates of measurement uncertainties that can arise when employing different experimental setups using the impingement method. It was observed that the impingement technique was sensitive to the design of the strike cap, specifically the contact area between the cap and transducer diaphragm, in addition to fuel temperature. Conversely, we observed that the impingement technique was relatively insensitive to angular and vertical misalignment, where the uncertainty can be estimated using control volume analysis. Transducer selection, specifically those with low acceleration sensitivity, high resonant frequency, and integrated electronics piezoelectric circuitry substantially reduce the noise in the measurement.

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