A state-of-the-art spray modeling methodology, recently presented by Senecal et al. [1, 2], is applied to Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of vaporizing sprays. Simulations of non-combusting Spray A (n-dodecane fuel) from the Engine Combustion Network are performed. An Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) cell size of 0.0625 mm is utilized based on the accuracy/runtime tradeoff demonstrated by Senecal et al. . In that work it was shown that grid convergence of key parameters for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays was achieved for cell sizes between 0.0625 and 0.125 mm using the Dynamic Structure LES model.
The current work presents an extended and more thorough investigation of Spray A using multi-dimensional spray modeling and the Dynamic Structure LES model. Twenty different realizations are simulated by changing the random number seed used in the spray sub-models. Multi-realization (ensemble) averaging is shown to be necessary when comparing to local spray measurements of quantities such as mixture fraction and gas-phase velocity. Through a detailed analysis, recommendations are made regarding the minimum number of LES realizations required for accurate prediction of Diesel sprays. Finally, the effect of a spray primary breakup model constant on the results is assessed.