Spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) gasoline engines, especially in downsized boosted engine platforms, are increasing their market share relative to port fuel injection (PFI) engines in U.S., European and Chinese vehicles due to better fuel economy by enabling higher compression ratios and higher specific power output. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from engines are becoming a concern due to adverse human health and environment effects, and more stringent emission standards. To conduct a PM number and size comparison between SIDI and PFI systems, a 2.0 L boosted gasoline engine has been equipped and tested with both systems at different loads, air fuel ratios, spark timings, fuel pressures and injection timings for SIDI operation and loads, air fuel ratios and spark timings for PFI operation.
Regardless of load, air fuel ratio, spark timing, fuel pressure, and injection timing, particle size distribution from SIDI and PFI is shown to be bimodal, exhibiting nucleation and accumulation mode particles. SIDI produces particle numbers that are an order of magnitude greater than PFI. Particle number can be reduced by retarding spark timing and operating the engine lean, both for SIDI and PFI operation. Increasing fuel injection pressure and optimizing injection timing with SIDI also reduces PM emissions. This study provides insight into the differences in PM emissions from boosted SIDI and PFI engines and an evaluation of PM reduction potential by varying engine operating parameters in boosted SIDI and PFI gasoline engines.