The dual fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) concept has been successfully demonstrated to be a promising, more controllable, high efficiency and cleaner combustion mode. A multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with detailed chemistry, KIVA-CHEMKIN, was applied to develop a strategy for phasing control during load transitions. Steady-state operating points at 1500 rev/min were calibrated from 0 to 5 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The load transitions considered in this study included a load-up and a load-down load change transient between 1 bar and 4 bar BMEP at 1500 rev/min. The experimental results showed that during the load transitions, the diesel injection timing responded in 2 cycles while around 5 cycles were needed for the diesel common-rail pressure to reach the target value. However, the intake manifold pressure lagged behind the pedal change for about 50 cycles due to the slower response of the turbocharger.
The effect of these transients on RCCI engine combustion phasing was studied. The CFD model was first validated against steady-state experimental data at 1 bar and 4 bar BMEP. Then the model was used to develop strategies for phasing control by changing the direct port fuel injection (PFI) amount during load transitions. Specific engine operating cycles during the load transitions (6 cycles for the load-up transition and 7 cycles for the load-down transition) were selected based on the change of intake manifold pressure to represent the transition processes. Each cycle was studied separately to find the correct PFI to diesel fuel ratio for the desired CA50 (the crank angle at which 50 % of total heat release occurs). The simulation results showed that CA50 was delayed by 7 to 15 degrees for the load-up transition and advanced by around 5 degrees during the load-down transition if the pre-calibrated steady-state PFI table was used. By decreasing the PFI ratio by 10 % to 15 % during the load-up transition and increasing the PFI ratio by around 40 % during the load-down transition, the CA50 could be controlled at a reasonable value during transitions. The control strategy can be used for closed-loop control during engine transient operating conditions. Combustion and emission results during load transitions are also discussed.