This paper presents an experimental analysis of diesel-ignited propane dual fuel low temperature combustion (LTC) based on performance, emissions, and in-cylinder combustion data from a modern, heavy-duty diesel engine. The engine used for these experiments was a 12.9-liter, six-cylinder, direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine with electronic unit diesel injection pumps, a variable geometry turbocharger, and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The experiments were performed with gaseous propane (the primary fuel) fumigated upstream of the turbocharger and diesel (the pilot fuel) injected directly into the cylinders. Results are presented for a range of diesel injection timings (SOIs) from 10° BTDC to 50° BTDC at a brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of 5 bar and a constant engine speed of 1500 RPM. The effects of SOI, percent energy substitution (PES) of propane (i.e., replacement of diesel fuel energy with propane), intake boost pressure, and cooled EGR on the dual fuel LTC process were investigated. The approach was to determine the effects of SOI while maximizing the PES of propane. Dual fuel LTC was achieved with very early SOIs (e.g., 50° BTDC) coupled with high propane PES (> 84%), which yielded near-zero NOx (< 0.02 g/kW-hr) and very low smoke emissions (< 0.1 FSN). Increasing the propane PES beyond 84% at the SOI of 50° BTDC yielded a high COV of IMEP due to retarded combustion phasing (CA50). Intake boost pressures were increased and EGR rates were decreased to minimize the COV, allowing higher propane PES (∼ 93%); however, lower fuel conversion efficiencies (FCE) and higher HC and CO emissions were observed.

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