This study presents a detailed exhaust emission characterization of an EMD 2-Stroke turbocharged line haul locomotive diesel engine fitted with an early-development Tier 0+ emissions kit. The objective of this work is to use emissions characterization to gain insight into engine operation and mechanisms of pollutant formation for this family of engine, and identify areas of potential future engine emissions improvement. Results show that at the notches tested (notches 3–8) the largest contributor to PM mass is insolubles (mostly elemental carbon), but that the soluble component of PM, comprising 14–32% of PM, is also significant. GC-FID analysis of the soluble portion shows that it is composed of 55–77% oil-like C22-C30+ hydrocarbons, with the remainder being fuel-like C9-C21 hydrocarbons. The emissions characterization suggests that advancing combustion timing should be effective in reducing PM mass by reducing the insoluble portion (elemental carbon) of PM at all notches. NOx will likely increase, but the current level of NOx is sufficiently below Tier 0+ limits to allow a moderate increase. Reducing engine oil consumption should also reduce PM mass at all notches, although to a smaller degree than measures that reduce the insoluble portion of PM.

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