Increased environmental awareness and depletion of fossil petroleum resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel derived from vegetable oils by modifying its molecular structure. In the present experimental research work, methyl ester of rice-bran oil (ROME) is derived through transesterification of rice-bran oil using methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalyst. On the basis of previous research for performance, emission and combustion characteristics, a 20% blend of ROME (B20) was selected as optimum biodiesel blend. In the present research, the experimental investigation was aimed to investigate the effect of biodiesel on wear of in-cylinder components. Endurance tests were conducted on a medium duty direct injection transportation diesel engine with 20% blend of the ROME with mineral diesel. Tests were conducted under predetermined loading cycles in two phases: engine operating on mineral diesel and engine fuelled with 20% biodiesel blend. After completion of the tests, engines were dismantled for observing the physical condition of the various parts, e.g. piston rings, bearings, cylinder liner, cylinder head etc. Physical measurements of various vital parts were also carried out to assess the wear of the parts of engine. The physical wear of various parts except big end bearings were found to be lower in case of 20% biodiesel fuelled engine. Wear metals in the lubricating oil samples drawn from the engines at regular intervals were investigated. Relatively lower wear concentration of all wear metals except lead were found in the lubricating oil of B20 fuelled engine. Two quantify the wear of cylinder liners, surface parameters at different locations in the liner (TDC, BDC and mid-stroke) were measured and investigated. A qualitative analysis was also carried out by taking surface profiles and conducting scanning electron microscopy at same locations.

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