The tailpipe emissions from automotive engines have been subject to steadily reducing legislative limits. This reduction has been achieved through the addition of sub-systems to the basic four-stroke engine which thereby increases its complexity. To ensure the entire system functions correctly, each system and / or sub-systems needs to be continuously monitored for the presence of any faults or malfunctions. This is a requirement detailed within the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) legislation. To date, a physical model approach has been adopted by the automotive industry for the monitoring requirement of OBD legislation. However, this approach has restrictions from the available knowledge base and computational load required. A neural network technique incorporating Multivariant Statistical Process Control (MSPC) has been proposed as an alternative method of building interrelationships between the measured variables and monitoring the correct operation of the engine. Building upon earlier work for steady state fault detection, this paper details the use of non-linear models based on an Auto-associate Neural Network (ANN) for fault detection under transient engine operation. The theory and use of the technique is shown in this paper with the application to the detection of air leaks within the inlet manifold system of a modern gasoline engine whilst operated on a pseudo-drive cycle.

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