As part of the Norfolk-Southern Railroad’s on-going investigation into fuel consumption reductions for their fleet of 3000 locomotives, the Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines and Emissions at West Virginia University conducted on-site locomotive engine performance and emissions measurements to characterize the performance, fuel consumption and emissions associated with fuel injectors from two injector suppliers. Emissions and fuel consumption were measured using the West Virginia University Transportable Locomotive Emissions Testing Laboratory, which was set up at the Norfolk-Southern Heavy Repair Facility in Roanoke, Virginia. The tests were conducted to evaluate potential emissions and fuel consumption differences between two fuel injector suppliers using an EMD GP38-2 locomotive equipped with a 2100 hp (1566 kW), 16-cylinder, EMD 16-645E engine. The test locomotive engine was freshly overhauled and certified to the EPA locomotive Tier 0 emissions standards. Emissions and fuel consumption measurements were conducted according to the Federal Test Procedures defined in the Code of Federal Regulations 40CFR Part 92 Subpart B [1]. The engine was first tested in the “as overhauled” configuration with the OEM fuel injectors to establish the baseline emissions and fuel consumption. The baseline FTP results confirmed that this locomotive was in compliance with the Federal Tier 0 emissions standards. The OEM specification fuel injectors were replaced with “Fuel Saver” injectors designed and manufactured by an aftermarket injector supplier referred to in this paper as Supplier B. The Supplier B injectors reduced fuel consumption on the average of 2–4% for each notch, except for Notch 4 and Low Idle. However, the Supplier B injectors increased the NOx levels by 20–30% for almost every notch, which is an expected result due to the improved combustion efficiency.

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