A multidimensional computational fluid dynamics (CED) method has been used to improve the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution in the intake manifold. Since gas flow in the intake system is affected by intake pulsation caused by the gas exchange process, a pulsation flow simulation is used. A one-dimensional gas exchange calculation is combined with three-dimensional intake gas flow to simulate pulsation flow. This pulsation flow simulation makes it possible to predict the EGR distribution. The gas flow in the intake system was analyzed in detail. It was found that a reverse flow region formed downstream of the throttle valve. The size and shape of the reverse flow region greatly depend on the engine operating conditions. With a conventional EGR system, it is difficult to distribute EGR uniformly under various engine operating conditions. A new EGR system that uses a spiral flow to mix the fresh air and EGR gas has been developed to obtain a uniform EGR distribution. As a result of adopting this system, a uniform EGR distribution is obtained regardless of the engine operating conditions. This spiral flow EGR system was applied to a low-emission vehicle (LEV) put on the Japanese market.

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