A phenomenological cycle simulation for a dual fuel engine has been developed to mathematically simulate the significant processes of the engine cycle, to predict specific performance parameters for the engine, and to investigate approaches to improve performance and reduce emissions. The simulation employs two zones (crevice and unburned) during the processes of exhaust, intake, compression before fuel injection starts, and expansion after combustion ends. From the start of fuel injection to the end of combustion, several, zones are utilized to account for crevice flow, diesel fuel spray, air entrainment, diesel fuel droplet evaporation, ignition delay, flame propagation, and combustion quenching. The crevice zone absorbs charge gas from the cylinder as pressure increases, and releases mass back into the chamber as pressure decreases. Some crevice mass released during late combustion may not be oxidized, resulting in emissions of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide. Quenching ahead of the flame front may leave additional charge unburned, yielding high methane emissions. Potential reduction of engine-out NOx emissions with natural gas fueling has also been investigated. The higher substitution of natural gas in the engine produces less engine-out NOx emissions. This paper presents the development of the model, baseline predictions, and comparisons to experimental measurements performed in a single-cylinder Caterpillar 3400 series engine.

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