To realize the pre-mixed combustion type Diesel engine, analyses of the wide-angle conical spray flow and its application to the direct injection Diesel engine have been made. In the present work, the spray was evaluated by high speed flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PTV) measurement, phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) measurement and numerical simulation by KTVA-3V code, and finally the combustion and exhaust characteristics of the proposed engine are examined.
The penetration and the shape of the conical sprays under different ambient pressures (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 MPa) are obtained experimentally and with numerical simulations. Generally, good agreements between them are achieved. It is also cleared that the spray formation is strongly influenced by the surrounding pressure. PIV measurements show the initial development of the spray. The maximum velocity is about 80 m/s, which is almost in the same range as that obtained by the PDA measurements.
For the combustion experiment, the excess air ratio was set at 3.1 and 2.5. The engine speed was varied from 1000 to 2000 rpm. Expected premixed combustion region is realized at around the fuel injection timing prior to 65 degree BTDC, where NOx and soot emissions are almost zero at the excess air ratio of 3.1.