To overcome the trade-off between NOx and particulate emissions for future diesel vehicles and engines it is necessary to seek methods to lower pollutant emissions. The desired simultaneous improvement in fuel efficiency for future DI diesels is also a difficult challenge due to the combustion modifications that will be required to meet the exhaust emission mandates.

This study demonstrates the emission reduction capability of EGR and other parameters on a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system using an RSM optimization method. Engine testing was done at 1757 rev/min, 45% load. The variables used in the optimization process included injection pressure, boost pressure, injection timing, and EGR rate. RSM optimization led engine operating parameters to reach a low-temperature and premixed combustion regime called the MK combustion region, and resulted in simultaneous reductions in NOx and particulate emissions without sacrificing fuel efficiency. It was shown that RSM optimization is an effective and powerful tool for realizing the full advantages of the combined effects of combustion control techniques by optimizing their parameters. It was also shown that through a close observation of optimization processes, a more thorough understanding of HSDI diesel combustion can be provided.

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