This paper addresses that major changes in the safety approach, for instance the increased use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), have been made. All commercial reactors in operation today belong to the Generations II and III. Generation IV International Forum (GIF) has launched several programs aimed at developing the next generation of nuclear energy systems. Part of the research effort is focused on new reactor concepts, such as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), currently developing in Korea. In parallel to the design process of VHTR currently underway, regulatory approach is moving forward to define new licensing rules. So, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) is defining, as a goal to risk-inform, the regulation and developing the regulatory framework and licensing process more efficient, predictable, and stable. However, the licensing of NPPs has focused until now on Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and has not incorporated systematically insights and benefits from PRA. In the meantime, USNRC and IAEA have recently drafted a risk-informed regulation and technology-neutral framework (TNF) for new plant licensing along with the innovative Gen-IV system design. KINS also expects that advanced NPPs will show enhanced margins of safety, and that advanced reactor designs will comply with the national safety goal policy statement. In order to meet these expectations, PRA tools are currently being considered by KINS; among them are frequency-consequence (F-C) curves, which plot the frequency of having Consequence. This paper discusses the role and the usefulness of such curves in risk-informing the licensing process in Korea, and shows that the use of F-C curve allows the implementation of both structural and rational Defence-In-Depth (DID). This paper focuses on F-C curves as means to assess the licensing basis events (LBEs) from the regulatory viewpoint on the innovative small and medium reactor (SMR) sized VHTR deployment in Korea. The principle underlying the F-C curve is that event frequency and dose are inversely related, i.e., the higher the dose consequences, the lower is the allowed event frequency.

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