Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are being used extensively in automotive and aviation industries as we move towards sustainable, energy efficient, and affordable futuristic transportation. Due to their high-power density (up to 10,000 W/L) and energy density (up to 705 Wh/L), lithium-ion batteries are excellent candidates to be utilized as an energy source. Thermal management of the batteries are essential to maintain a safe and uniform operating temperature envelope based on different applications. Large lithium-ion battery packs face several challenges, however thermal management is critical in ensuring safety, optimum power output and prevent thermal stress induced aging effects. Although, different cooling techniques are presented in literature, it is extremely difficult to present the best choice of the technique without performing trade-off studies. This paper presents a comparative study of the cooling effectiveness of standard heat sink, Phase Change Material surrounding the batteries, and heat sink with circular, square and airfoil fins, with Phase Change Material (PCM) for efficient management of the temperatures of lithium-ion battery packs at high charging and discharging rates. A coupled thermal-electrochemical numerical simulation study is conducted to compare the 4 different types of cooling techniques to maintain the operational temperature between 15°C–50°C. A parametric study is conducted for variable power of the battery pack at high charging and discharging rates and the cooling performance enhancement through the use PCM with surface modifications in the heat sink is examined.

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