The presented study numerically investigated the heat transfer characteristics of supercritical hydrocarbon fuel RP-3 in a vertical tube under overweight conditions with gravitational accelerations from 1g to 5g. The model was simplified as a vertical tube with the diameter of 1.8mm and the length of 250mm. Constant heat flux was applied to the wall, varying from 200kW/m2 to 700kW/m2. Variations of wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient under overweight conditions were obtained by simulation. The dimensionless buoyancy and thermal acceleration under different conditions were analyzed. The results show that the heat transfer is normal at low heat flux, while two types of heat transfer deterioration were observed in both upward and downward supercritical flow at high heat flux. The heat transfer coefficient of downward flow is generally higher than upward flow, and the difference between them becomes larger with the increase of gravitational acceleration. At high heat flux, when bulk temperature reaches the pseudo-critical temperature, the thermal acceleration will increase by 50% leading to the deterioration of heat transfer. However, after the pseudo-critical point, both buoyancy force and thermal acceleration decrease to negligible. The rise in gravitational acceleration enhances buoyancy force, but has no impact on the thermal acceleration. Based on the numerical analysis, two different criterion, Bo* and Kv, for supercritical RP-3 are obtained to present the influence of buoyancy and thermal acceleration.