Experimental validation was performed in this study to verify the efficacy of numerical models for predicting the location of solid-liquid interface in an axi-symmetric configuration during both melting and solidification in a Latent Heat Storage Unit (LHSU). Development of analytical solutions for predicting the location of the solid-liquid interface is often intractable in LHSU due to non-linear temperature distribution in the Phase Change Material (PCM). This is further complicated by the moving boundary problem with free convection within the liquid phase of the PCM. Analytical solutions available in the contemporary literature are based on simplified transient heat conduction models and often fail to reliably predict the charging and discharging time constants for LHSU with complex configurations. This study is designed with the goal of developing more sophisticated numerical models for the estimation of transient thermal performance of an LHSU with a simple configuration involving a shell and tube heat exchanger (HX).

The LHSU utilized in this study is realized by integrating various types of Phase Change Materials (PCM) contained in the shell side of a HX. The LHSU is charged or discharged by pumping hot or cold fluids in the tube side of the HX (i.e., by pumping water at a fixed inlet temperature from a commercial chiller apparatus). This study enabled the characterization of the transient response of a LHSU subjected to conduction and forced convection heat transfer. The PCM used in this material was paraffin wax (PURETEMP 29). The HX in the LHSU consisted of a single pass straight tube (½ inch copper pipe) mounted within a single shell configuration. The shell was fabricated from plastic material using additive manufacturing (i.e., “3D Printing”). The temperature variation during melting and solidification of the PCM were measured at different radial and axial locations within the cylindrical shell that was mounted vertically. Temperature measurements were performed at different mass flowrate ranging from 0.004 Kg/sec to 0.007 Kg/sec for the same fluid temperature. The water bath temperatures were maintained at a constant temperature of 40°C for melting and 15°C for solidification. The experiment results show that the transient response of the LHSU for charging and discharging (i.e., time required for melting and solidification of the PCM) vary significantly. Comparison of the experimental data with analytical results (involving quasi-stationary models for phase change) demonstrate that natural convection is the dominant mode during the melting process, while conduction is the dominant mode during the solidification process.

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