Over-cooling of electronic devices and systems results in excess energy consumption, which can be reduced by closely linking cooling requirements with actual power dissipation. A thermal model-based flow rate controller for single phase liquid cooled three-dimensional (3D) stacked chips, using pin-fin enhanced micro gap was studied in this paper. A thermal compact model of a two-layer pin fin enhanced micro gap was developed, which ran 105 times faster than using full-field computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer (CFD/HT) method, with reasonable accuracy and spatial details. This was used in conjunction with a flow rate control strategy to provide the needed amount of liquid to cool the heat sources to the desired temperature range. An example case study shows that the estimated energy savings in pump power is about 27% compared with pumping fluid at a constant flow rate.

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