Development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles is of great interest to the transportation industry due to increased demand and cost of imported fuel, uncertainty in the steady supply of oil, and increased standards for reduced emissions. Lithium-ion batteries are considered as one of the leading types for the battery systems to be employed in electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Using a regenerative braking system and storing it in battery stacks and using it later for propulsion and acceleration can improve the overall efficiency and reduction of fuel consumption.
The objective of this study is to evaluate experimentally the battery performance considering different discharge and charge rates, and investigate the thermal behavior and thermal management requirements of the batteries under a variety of environmental conditions. An experimental test facility has been developed to evaluate thermal performance during charging and discharging modes. Environmental temperatures were varied in environmental chamber to analyze their effects on the charging and discharging patterns of the battery by using the CADEX battery analyzer in order to find the temperature range for optimum battery performance. The batteries were monitored with thermal sensors and a thermal imaging camera while they were run through different load scenarios. In the present study, lithium-ion batteries have been tested and battery performance in terms of polarization curves and discharge capacity were measured using a computerized battery analyzer system for different discharge and charge rates, and over a range of ambient temperatures. Results indicate that at higher discharge and charge rates battery performance decreases due to increased polarization losses, which results in increased internal heat generation and temperature of the battery. Battery performance also depends strongly on the ambient temperature conditions.