Data from an extensive experimental study of submerged jet impingement boiling performed with water at sub-atmospheric pressures and with FC-72 at atmospheric pressure are used to develop a predictive critical heat flux (CHF) correlation for use in thermal management of electronic components. The configuration was that of a circular submerged jet impinging on a high-thermal-capacity copper surface with a standoff distance of 6 nozzle diameters. Varied parameters included the Reynolds numbers (Re) from 0 (pool boiling) to 14000, surface-to-nozzle diameter ratios (by varying the nozzle diameter) from 25 to 6, system pressures (0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1 bar), surface roughness (123 nm, 33 nm), and system subcooling. CHF is found to increase with Re, system pressure, subcooling, and roughness and decreases with increase in nozzle diameter for a fixed Re.

Comparison with correlations in literature indicated that data of sub-atmospheric jet impingement of water were poorly predicted by existing correlations while the Monde and Katto correlation [1] was found to predict the atmospheric jet impingement data with FC-72 within 10 percent at Re >4000. Data from the experiments were fitted to a submerged forced convective CHF model proposed by Haramura and Katto [2] to develop a correlation for submerged jet impingement boiling over a wide range of density ratios. Using this model, the entire CHF dataset from experiments can be predicted with a maximum error of less than 11 percent and an average error of less than 2.6 percent.

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